Errors and Confounding Variables

Dependent variables are affected by the independent variable and errors. In research, errors are not considered mistakes, rather part of the process. Observational Error can occur in a research. It is the difference between the measured value and the true value of a quantity. The error has two parts, Systematic Error and Random Error. Systematic error is […]

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Group Designs

Group Designs are used with one or more groups of subjects. In a Between-Group Design, different groups are exposed to different levels of the treatment and the effects on the dependent variable for both groups are compared. In our example, we may ask one group to get one hour of sunlight and another group to get […]

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Time Series Designs

A Single-Subject Design is used when there is one person being studied. There is a phase where no treatment is being offered, this is called the baseline phase. This is followed by a phase that includes treatment. The subject during the baseline phase is the control for the study. In order to assess the effects of […]

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Developmental Research

Developmental Research Developmental research assesses variables over time, how people are different with different age/level of development. You can do this through a Longitudinal Design where same people are studied over a long period of time (e.g. follow 20 five-year-olds for ten years to see how their cognitive functioning has changed). However, people tend to drop-out […]

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Research Designs and Strategies

Research Paradigms Research can usually be of three types: quantitative, qualitative, or mixed method. Quantitative Research is conducted with numerical data where specific hypotheses are tested. Qualitative Research is mainly exploratory where the researcher approaches with some basic assumptions, but not specific hypotheses and the data is usually not numerical and can be thematic. Mixed Method Research combines […]

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Hypotheses and Variables

Research is the most basic element of a scientific study. It usually begins with an idea or a thought. Let’s suppose I was wondering if exposure to sunlight can reduce symptoms of depression. That’s the original thought I have. Hypotheses The first step to conduct research for this thought would be to convert this into […]

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