Developed by Troiden. Sensitization: occurring before puberty, the person begins to feel different. Identity Confusion: after puberty, the person experiences confusion and conflict related to their feelings. Identity Assumption: in early adulthood, immersion in homosexual culture with facing societal stigma. Commitment: accepting and internalizing one’s sexual orientation.
Developed by Helm, it assumes that most white individuals have some form of racism in the beginning of identity development. Contact: lack of awareness and understanding of racism, color-blind. Disintegration: conflict within self related to racial moral dilemmas after increased awareness. Reintegration: resolution of conflict by internalizing white superiority, regression. Pseudo-Independence: questioning of racist views after an encounter. Immersion-Emersion: begin […]
Developed by Cross and Fhagen-Smith, this model takes racial oppression into account as related to identity development. Pre-Encounter: internalization of negative/racist views of blacks. Encounter: an event that leads to questioning the black identity. Immersion-Emersion: beginning to develop a black identity. Internalization: one of three identities are adopted: Black Nationalist Bicultural Multicultural
Developed by Atkinson, Morten, and Sue. Conformity: one identifies with stereotypes of their culture of origin and prefers dominant cultural group over their own. Dissonance: an encounter results in questioning the dominant cultural and initiating interest in own culture causing conflicting attitudes towards both groups. Resistance and Immersion: detachment from the dominant group and a […]