Kurt Lewin’s Leadership Styles
Autocratic: leaders that take decision-making into their own hands without consultation from others, expect others to carry out their orders. Highest productivity with routine work.
Democratic: take an active role in the decision-making process while including others, take responsibility for carrying out the decisions. Highest satisfaction and creativity.
Laissez-Faire: leave everything up to the team, the end result depends on the motivation of the team.
Ohio State Leadership Studies
Identified two dimensions of leadership behavior:
- Task-Oriented: initiating structure, focused on goals and following rules
- Person-Oriented: focused on consideration and human relations
Theory X and Theory Y
According to this theory, leaders are characterized by their beliefs related to their work and workers.
- Theory X: leader assumes that workers lack ambition, avoid responsibility, are lazy, and only interested in themselves. Leaders tend to use rewards and punishments. Leaders find work distasteful.
- Theory Y: leader summer that workers are ambitious, self-motivated, and hard-working. Leaders connect with workers at a personal level. Leaders find work playful and enjoyable.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory (LPC)
Effectiveness of the leader is determined by style and situation. Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale is used to determine this.
- High LPC Leaders: describe LPC in positive terms, relationship-oriented, best in moderately favorable situations
- Low LPC Leaders: describe LPC in negative terms, task-oriented, best in very favorable or very unfavorable situations
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
Focused on worker’s motivation and ability.
- Delegating: low task-orientation and relationship-orientation, best when worker’s ability and motivation to accept responsibility are both high
- Participating: low task-orientation and high relationship orientation, best when worker’s ability is high but motivation to accept responsibility is low
- Selling: high task-orientation and relationship-orientation, best when worker’s ability is low but motivation to accept responsibility is high
- Telling: high task-orientation and low relationship-orientation, best when worker’s ability and motivation to accept responsibility are both low
House’s Path-Goal Theory
Assumes that worker’s satisfaction and motivation are highest when leader is helping. Best leadership style depends on situation. Identifies four leadership styles:
- Instrumental: directive leaders who provide specific guidelines and clear expectations
- Supportive: have supportive relationships with workers
- Participative: include workers in the decision-making process
- Achievement-Oriented: set challenging goals and encourage high performance
Vroom and Yetton’s Normative (Contingency) Model
Leadership is based on situations and inclusion of group members in the decision-making process. A decision tree is used. Five leadership styles:
- AI: leader makes own decision without consultation
- AII: leader gathers information from workers, but makes own decision
- CI: leader consults individually but makes own decision
- CII: leader discuss with group but makes own decision
- GII: leader discusses with workers and decision is made after consensus
Transformational vs Transactional Leaders
Transformational leaders are focused on change, create vision, are just and fair, and sacrifice own interests.
Transactional leaders are focused on stability and are motivated by own self-interests.