The Transtheoretical Model of Change was developed by Prochaska and DiClemente. It addresses the process of change as experienced by the individual requiring change in behaviors.
There were five original stages, a sixth one was added later:
- Precontemplation: The person is in the state of denial about their issues. There is no intention of changing the behaviors and lack of awareness of the consequences due to the problematic behaviors. If confronted, the person becomes defensive.
- Contemplation: The person recognizes that there exists a problem within themselves. They are considering change but have not committed to it yet. They are still going over the costs and benefits of change in their mind. They may change their behaviors within six months.
- Preparation: The individual has decided to change and is planning to change their behaviors within one month.
- Action: Acting on the process of change itself through seeking help, planning, and obtaining support.
- Maintenance: The individual has maintained the change in behavior for three to six months. Relapse prevention is the main focus.
- Termination: Relapse is not expected and old behaviors are no longer considered.