Developed by Helm, it assumes that most white individuals have some form of racism in the beginning of identity development.

  1. Contact: lack of awareness and understanding of racism, color-blind.
  2. Disintegration: conflict within self related to racial moral dilemmas after increased awareness.
  3. Reintegration: resolution of conflict by internalizing white superiority, regression.
  4. Pseudo-Independence: questioning of racist views after an encounter.
  5. Immersion-Emersion: begin to consider non-racist white identity. Confronting and replacing one’s own biases.
  6. Autonomy: sense of white identity without racist beliefs and practices with increased cross-cultural interactions.