Developed by Atkinson, Morten, and Sue.

  1. Conformity: one identifies with stereotypes of their culture of origin and prefers dominant cultural group over their own.
  2. Dissonance: an encounter results in questioning the dominant cultural and initiating interest in own culture causing conflicting attitudes towards both groups.
  3. Resistance and Immersion: detachment from the dominant group and a preference for own group.
  4. Introspection: reflection on identity leads to concern of inflexible attitudes toward own group as well as the dominant group.
  5. Integrative Awareness: a sense of belonging to own group while being able to integrate into the dominant group. Values and beliefs are assessed objectively before acceptance/rejection.