Developed by Cross and Fhagen-Smith, this model takes racial oppression into account as related to identity development.

  1. Pre-Encounter: internalization of negative/racist views of blacks.
  2. Encounter: an event that leads to questioning the black identity.
  3. Immersion-Emersion: beginning to develop a black identity.
  4. Internalization: one of three identities are adopted:
    1. Black Nationalist
    2. Bicultural
    3. Multicultural