Carl Jung is another psychodynamic theorist. He believed in the Freudian concept of libidinal energy. According to Jung, current behavior I motivated by both, past events and future goals.

Personality Development

Jung took Freud’s unconscious to another level. He believed that a person not only possessed a Personal Unconscious, but also a Collective Unconscious. In the Outer World, the conscious is controlled by the person’ ego. This consists of the person’s thoughts, feelings, memories, etc.

The Inner World consists of the two levels of unconscious mind. The Personal Unconscious is very similar to Freud’s unconscious mind. The Collective Unconscious is shared by others in the world and consists of primordial images and concepts that have been passed down through generations.

Jung also presented the idea of Archetypes. These are the primordial images that help us understand phenomena in the world around us. These consist of:

  1. Self: the part of our unconscious that unifies all aspects of personality.
  2. Persona: this is the public mask we wear, how we present ourselves when we are with others.
  3. Shadow: this is the dark side of personality.
  4. Anima is the feminine aspect of our personality and Animus is the masculine aspect.

According to Jung, Individuation is the development of a unique identity that integrates elements of conscious and unconscious (personal and collective) minds. Individuation further leads to development of wisdom within the person.

Maladaptive Behavior

Per Jung, anxiety is when the unconscious mind signals the person that something is wrong. This is due to lack of individuation within the person.

Therapy and Goals

Jungian therapy is based on here-and-now. The goal is to uncover and bring the unconscious mind (personal and collective) closer to the conscious mind. This is done through interpretation of client’s expression during therapy. Jungian therapist also ask the clients to keep a dream journal to do dream interpretations. Transference and countertransference is taken into consideration.